The conventional methods of identification of Salmonella involving microbiological enrichment and successive identification mostly are tedious, time consuming and not specific. Therefore, the aim of this study was to utilize molecular techniques to characterize Salmonella species isolates from some Hospitals in Jos, Nigeria. The 10 isolates collected from some Hospitals in Jos, Nigeria were screened for Salmonella using conventional biochemical methods. The positive isolates were identified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for discernment of invasion A (invA) gene at explicit molecular size (284 bp) utilizing explicit primers (forward and reverse). Sequencing of the invA gene was performed and the similarities and differences between our invA gene and published sequences on GenBank were assessed. Seven out of ten confirmed Salmonella species isolates were positive to the invA gene while the remaining three were negative. The homology level of nucleotide sequence (97.746%) demonstrated high similitude between the local isolates and the other sequences on GenBank. Molecular characterization of the Salmonella isolates provides data about the virulence of the pathogen just as its relatedness to different organisms which offer data about the genome of the organisms and are helpful for epidemiological examinations. Therefore, Molecular methods which enable the detection of virulent genes are extremely important surveillance tools that are required to assist in curbing the escalation of infections caused by Salmonella.
Y. Zhang, P. Bi, and J. E. Hiller, Climate Variation and Salmonellosis Transmission: A Comparison of Regression Models. International Journal of Biometeorology, 52 (2008)179–87.
G. O. A. Agada, I. O. Abdullahi, M. Aminu, M. Odugbo, S. C. Chollom, 1. P.R. Kumbish, and A. E. J. Okwor, Prevalence and Antibiotic Resistance Profile of Salmonella Isolates from Commercial Poultry and Poultry Farm-Handlers in Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria. British Microbiology Research Journal, 4(4) (2014) 462–479.
S. E. Majowicz, J. Musto, E. Scallan, F. J. Angulo, M. Kirk, S. J. O’Brien, T. F. Jones, A.a-zil, and R. M. Hoekstra, The Global Burden of Nontyphoidal Salmonella Gastroenteritis. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 50(2010) 882–889.
A. C. Ibekwe, I. O. Okonko, A. U. Onunkwo, E. Donbraye, E. T. Babalola, and B. A. Onoja, Baseline Salmonella Agglutinin Titres in Apparently Healthy Freshmen in Awka, South Eastern, Nigeria. Scientific Research and Essays, 3(9) (2008) 225–230.
N.M. Abdel-Aziz, Detection of Salmonella species in Chicken Carcasses using Genus-specific Primer belong to invA gene in Sohag city, Egypt. Vetenary World, 9(10) (2016) 1125–1128.
A. Andino and I. Hanning, Salmonella enterica: Survival, Colonization and Virulence Differences among Serovars. Scientific World Journal, 10(2015) 1155–179.
H. Nidaullah, N. Abirami, A. K. Shamila-Syuhada, L. O. Chuah, H. Nurul, T. P. Tan, A.F.W. Zainal, and G. Rusul, Prevalence of Salmonella in Poultry Processing Environments in Wet Markets in Penang and Perlis, Malaysia. Vetenary World, 10(3) (2017) 286–292.
F. Kaniz, R. Mahfuzur, D. Suvomoy, and H. M. Mehadi, Comparative Analysis of Multi- Drug Resistance Pattern of Salmonella Spp. Isolated from Chicken Faeces And Poultry Meat in Dhaka City of Banghladash. Journal of Pharmacy and Biological Sciences, 9 (2014)147–149.
World Health Organization. (2014). Antimicrobial resistance. Available at: http://www.who.int/mediacentre /factsheets/fs194/en/ index.html.
T. V. Nga, A. Karkey, S. Dongol, H. N. Thuy, S. Dunstan, K. Holt, L. T. Tu, J. I. Campbell, T. T. Chau, N. V Chau, A. Arjyal, S. Koirala, B. Basnyat, C. Dolecek, J. Farrar, and S. Baker, the sensitivity of Real-time PCR Amplification Targeting Invasive Salmonella Serovars in Biological Specimens. BMC Infectious Diseases, 10 (2010) 125–129.
M. Antonio, Current Research Topics in Applied Microbiology and Microbial Biotechnology. Spain: World Scientific, 2009, pp. 214.
N. Saitou, and M. Nei, The Neighbor-Joining Method: A New Method for Reconstructing Phylogenetic Trees. Molecular Biology and Evolution 4 (1987) 406–425.
M. Nei, and S. Kumar, Molecular Evolution and Phylogenetics. New York: Oxford University Press. (2000).
S. Kumar, G. Stecher, M. Li, C. Knyaz, and K. Tamura, Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis Across Computing Platforms. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 35 (2018) 1547–1549.
B. Malorny, J. Hoorfar, C. Bunge, and R. Helmuth, R. Multicenter validation of the Analytical Accuracy of Salmonella PCR: Towards an International Standard. Applied Environmental Microbiology, 69(1) (2003) 290–296.
D. De Clercq, A. C. M. Heyndrickx, J. Coosemans, and J. Ryckeboer, A Rapid Monitoring Assay for the Detection of Salmonella spp. and Salmonella Senftenberg Strain W775 in Composts. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 103 (2007) 2102–2112.
S. D. Oliveira, C. R. Rodenbusch, M. C. Cé, S. L. Rocha, and C. W. Canal, Evaluation of Selective and Non-Selective Enrichment PCR Procedures for Salmonella Detection. Letters in Applied Microbiology, 36(4) (2003) 217–21.
M. H. Nashwa, A. H. Mahmoud, and S. A. Sami, Application of Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction (MPCR) for Identification and Characterization of Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium. Journal of Applied Sciences Research, 5(12) (2009) 2343–2348.
C. Suwit, R. Suvichai, U. Fred, T. Pakpoom, and P. Prapas, Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance of Salmonella Isolated from Carcasses, Processing Facilities and the Environment Surrounding Small Scale Poultry Slaughterhouses in Thailand. Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine Public Health, 45(6) (2014) 1392–1400.
T. Hernandez, A. Sierra, C. Rodriguez-Alvarez, A. Torres, M. P. Arevalo, M. Calvo, and A. Arias, Salmonella enterica Serotypes Isolated from Imported Frozen Chicken Meat in Canary Islands. Journal of Food Protection, 68(12) (2005) 2702–2706.
K. A. Lampel, P. A. Orlandi, and L. Kornegay, Improved Template Preparation for PCR-Based Assay for Detection of Food-Borne Bacterial Pathogens. Applied Environmental Microbiology, 66(10) (2000) 4539–4542.
M. Achtman, J. Wain, F. X. Weill, S. Nair, Z. Zhou, V. Sangal, M. G. Krauland, J. L. Hale, H. Harbottle, A Uesbeck, G. Dougan, L. H. Harrison, and S. Brisse, Multilocus Sequence Typing as a Replacement for Serotyping in Salmonella enterica. American Journal of Clinical Patholology, 45 (2012) 493–496.
A. A. E. Abdeltawab, A. M. Ahmed, A. R. Aisha, H. I. E. Fatma, and E. S. A. Mohammed, Detection of Common (Inva) Gene in Salmonellae Isolated from Poultry Using Polymerase Chain Reaction Technique. Benha Vetenary Medical Journal,25(2) (2013) 70–77.
K. H. Darwin, and V. L. Miller, Molecular Basis of the Interaction of Salmonella with the Intestinal Mucosa. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, 12(3) (1999) 405–428.
K. Pererat, and A. Murray, Development of a PCR Assay for the Identification of Salmonella enterica Serovar Brandenburg. Journal of Medical Microbiology, 57(3) (2008) 1223–1227.
R. A. Kingsley, S. Kay, T. Connor, L. Barquist, and L. Sait, Genome and Transcriptome Adaptation Accompanying Emergence of the Definitive Type 2 Host-Restricted Salmonella enteric Serovar typhimurium Pathovar. mBio journal, 4, (2013) 00565–73.
J. E. Galan, and R. Curtiss, Distribution of InvA, -B, -C and-D Genes of Salmonella typhimurium among other Salmonella serovars: InvA Mutants of Salmonella typhi are Deficient for Entry into Mammalian Cells. Infection and Immunology, 59 (1991) 2901–2908.
Q. Shi, Y. Zhang, Q. Y. Wang, G. Gao, and H. Fang, Phylogenetic Analysis of Virulence Factor Gene of Salmonella Isolated from Clinically Symptomatic Chickens. African Journal of Microbiology Research, 6 (2012) 1718–1722.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.