Objectives: To investigate the ameliorative effect of garlic extract on Aluminum Phosphide induced toxicity on the liver and kidney of adult Wistar rats.
Materials: Thirty six (36) male adult Wistar rats weighing 180±20 – 250±30 g were purchased from Dantom Farms, Swali, Bayelsa State and moved to the animal house of the department of Medical Laboratory Science, Niger Delta University. The animals were assigned into six (6) major groups with six (6) animals in each group after the period of acclimatization: Animals in Group A (Control): received pelleted growers mash (feed) and water. Group B (Positive Control received 0.014 mg of Aluminum Phosphide only. Group C: received 0.014 mg of Aluminum Phosphide and 250 g of garlic extract. Group D: received 0.014 mg of Aluminum Phosphide and 500 mg of garlic extract. Group E: received 500 mg of garlic extract, Group F: received 0.6 ml of oil at the end of the treatment, the liver and the kidney of each sacrificed rat were processed for paraffin sectioning and stained with Harris hematoxylin and eosin.
Result: Photomicrograph of the liver of animals in Groups B, C and D show central venous congestion, degeneration, hemorrhage, sinusoidal dilation, bile stasis, centrilobular necrosis, Kupffer cell hyperplasia, inflammatory cells and fat infiltration which are features of hepatic injury also photomicrograph of the kidney of animals in Groups B, C and D shows membranous defect, contracted glomeruli with marked presence of mesangial cells, areas of tubular necrosis with mesangial cells proliferation. while the other groups (Group A, E, F) did not show any histological change in comparison with control.
Conclusion: The present study proves that the oral ingestion of Aluminum Phosphide induces hepatotoxicity and inflammation of the liver and kidney. It also shows that the use of garlic at various concentrations (250 mg/l and 500 mg/l) aggravates the tissue damage even more, and also garlic extract does not have ameliorative effect on aluminum phosphide toxicity on the liver and kidney of albino wistar rats.
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