This study evaluated the prevalence of Entamoeba histolytica using microscopic detection and confirmed by DNA analysis using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique by taking samples of some public primary school pupils within Bwari Area Council of Abuja, Nigeria. Microscopic and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis targeting only a small portion (228 bp) of the adh112 gene. Results showed that out of three hundred and twenty (320) stool sample screened, twenty six 26 (8.1%) were found to be positive of the parasite. The prevalence was high among pupils in school 4 with 7 (11.2%) follow by school 5 with (11.1%), school 3 with 5(8.3%), school 1 with 5(7.3%) and the lowest school 2 with (2.9%) P<0.05. The prevalence was high among male with 18 (13.2%) than the female P<0.05. The prevalent was high among age 4-9 had more E. histolytica than other age group with 16 (12.8%) P<0.05. The prevalence of E. histolytica was high among those that use Open space system toilet with 11 (14.4%) than the other risk factors examined P<0.05. The polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism showed that the entire twenty six parasite were E. histolytica as given on the Agarose gel electrophoresis with adh112 gene band of 228bp. The sources of contracting amoebiasis include drinking of contaminated water, poor sanitation in living quarters, lack of or improper use of toilets, contact with flies and items contaminated by flies, among other hygiene related issues.
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