This study investigated the effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae-induced fermentation on the antioxidant properties of Roselle calyx aqueous extract and determined the physicochemical changes of the fermented extract. Total phenolics, total flavonoid, ascorbic acid content, total monomeric anthocyanin content and DPPH radical scavenging activity of roselle aqueous extract were investigated before and after fermentation. Roselle calyx aqueous extract was fermented for period of 10 days. During fermentation, the extract was evaluated for pH, alcohol (%), titratable acidity (%) and total soluble solids (oBrix). Total soluble solids and pH significantly decreased at the end of the fermentation whereas titratable acidity and alcohol content significantly increased. Fermentation caused significant reduction in total monomeric anthocyanin content from an initial value of 3518±30.8 to 1075±28.2 CGE/100 g dry extract whereas significant increase was observed in total phenolic content from 195.75±76.01 to 455.5±1.41 mgGAE/100 g dry extract and ascorbic acid content from 1392±101 to 2028±108 mg AAE/100 g dry extract and total flavonoids increased from 193.0±74.25 to 291.5±4.95 mgQE/100 g dry extract but it was not significant. There was also a significant increase in 1-1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity of roselle calyx aqueous extract from an initial value of 44.15% to final value of 71.10% after fermentation, leading to an increase in antioxidant activity. Therefore, the quantity of phenolic compounds increased with fermentation process. This study showed that roselle calyx aqueous extract fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisiae has a better antioxidant activity.
J.H. Sun, Y.L. Seung, K. Young-Chan,C. Inwook and K. Geun-Bae. (2014). Effect of fermentation on the antioxidant activity in plant-based foods. Food Chemistry,160:346-356.
S.O. Umeh, L.C. Agwuna and U.C. Okafor. (2017). Yeast from local sources: An alternative to conventional brewer’s yeast. International Journal of Biotechnology and Food Science 30:191-195.
P. Saranraj, P. Sivasakthivelan and M. Naveen. (2017). Fermentation of Fruit Wine and its Quality Analysis: A Review. Australian Journal of Science and Technology. 1: 85-96.
V. Bakare, M.S. Abdulsalami, B.C. Onusiriuka, J. Appah, B. Benjamin and T.O. Ndibe. (2019). Ethanol production from lignocellulosic materials by fermentation process using yeast. Journal of Applied Science and Environmental Management 23: 875-882.
T.A. Barhé and G.R.F. Tchouya. (2015). Comparative study of the anti-oxidant activity of the total polyphenols extracted from Hibiscus sabdariffa L., Glycine max L. Merr., yellow tea and red wine through reaction with DPPH free radicals. Arabian Journal of Chemistry, 9, 1-8.
P. Kekungu-u, A. Chubasenla, G. Sandeep, D. Samir, S. Rajkumari, P.M. Kamal, K.J. Anjani, S. Ingudam and S. Arnab. (2017). Studies on the therapeutic properties of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) calyx: A popular ingredient in the cuisine of North East India. International Journal of Food Science and Nutrition. 2(5):1-6.
J. Kukic, S. Petrovic and M. Niketic. (2006). Antioxidant activity of four endemic Stachys taxa. Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin., 29: 725-729.
S. S. Ogundapo, J.C. Onuoha, C.N. Olekanma, A.B. Okon, O.T. Soniran, D.A. Omoboyowa and D.A. Okor. (2014). Alteration in biochemical parameters of Hibiscus sabdariffacalyces (zobo) supplemented with commercial flavor additive. Journal of Natural Product. 7:116-123.
T. Frank, N. Gabriele, R. Dietmar and C. Reinhold. (2012). Consumption of Hibiscus Sabdariffa L. aqueous extract and its impact on systematic antioxidant potential in healthy subjects. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 92: 2207-18.
AOAC (2010). Official Methods of Analysis, 18th edition Association of Official Analytical Chemist, Washington, DC.
A.V. Martini and A. Martini. (1993). A Taxonomic key for genus Sacharromyces Systematic and Applied Microbiology 16(1): 113-119.
J. Barnett, R. Payne and D. Yarrow. (2000) Yeast Characteristics and Identification. 3rd ed., Cambridge University Press, 1139-1145.
M. Thais, D.G. Guimarães, I.P. Moriel, M.T. Machado, P. Cyntia, Fadel and T.B. Tania. (2006). Isolation and Characterization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains of winery interest. Brazilian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 42: 119-126.
A.O.A.C. (2000). Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists 17th Ed. Published by the Association of Official Analytical Chemists. USA.
K.B. Mgaya, S.F. Remberg, B.E. Chove and T. Wicklund. (2014). Physicochemical, mineral composition and antioxidant properties of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) extract blended with tropical fruit juices. African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development. 14(3): 112-119.
J. Zhishen, T. Mengcheng and W. Jianming. (1999). The determination of flavonoid contents in mulberry and scavenging effects on superoxide radicals. Food Chemistry, 64: 555-559.
S.G. Claudia, T. Fidel, B. Vergara, E. Ana, R. Ortega and A.G. Jose. (2012) Antioxidant properties and color of Hibiscus sabdariffa extracts. Ciencia. investigacion.Agraria. 39(1):79-90.
K. Chakraborty, V. Saha, V. Raychaudhuri and R. Chakraborty. (2015). Optimization of bioprocessing parameters using response surface methodology for bael (Aegle marmelos L.) wine with the analysis of antioxidant potential, colour and heavy metal concentration. Nutrafoods, 14(1): 39-49. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13749-014-0064-8.
V.A. Jideani, I. Nkem, E.B. Agbo and I.A. Jideani. (2001). Survey of production in some Northern States of Nigeria. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition. 14: 23- 36.
S.O. Umeh, O. Udemezue, B.C. Okeke and G.C. Agu. (2015). Paw paw (Carica papaya) wine: with low sugar produced using Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolated from a local drink’’burukutu”. International Journal of Biotechnology and Food Science. 5(2):17-22.
C.P. Kurtzman and J.W. Fell. (1999). The yeasts. A taxonomic study. North-Holland, Amsterdam 1055.
Z. Chi and N. Ameborg. (2000). Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains with different degrees of ethanol tolerance exhibit different adaptive responses to produced ethanol. Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology. 24: 75-78.
A. Querol, E.M. Fernandez, M. Olmo and E. Barrio. (2003). Adaptive evolution of wine yeast. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 86: 3-10.
C. Lanchakon, O. Nutwara, J. Chanjira and J. Maneewan. (2017). Scavenging Capacity and Antibacterial Activity Extract and Wine Production. Suan Sunandha and Technology Journal. Vol 4,17-22.
R. Ghazala and C. Rajni. (2018). “A review on phytochemistry and therapeutic uses of Hibiscus sabdariffa L.” Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy. 102:575-586.
R. Nazarni, D. Purnama, S. Umar and H. Eni. (2016). The effect of effection on total phenolic, flavonoid a nd tannin content and its relation to antibacterial activity in jaruk tigarun (Crataeva nurvala, Buch HAM). International Food Research Journal 23:309-315.
A. Fahad, U. Nurhan, M. Mehmet, G. Mehmet, A. Isam, A. Hesham and A. Magdi and A. Mustafa. (2019). Effect of fermentation on antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds of the leaves of five grape varieties. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation 43: 234-237.
M.D. Tijana, S.S. Slavica and I.D. Suzana. (2010). Effect of fermentation on the antioxidant properties of some cereals and pseudo-cereals. Food Chemistry 119:957-963.
N. Wang, C. Wang, Y. Tzeng and Y. Shyu. (2011). Lactic acid bacterial fermentation on the production of functional antioxidant herbal Anoectochilus formosanus Hayata. Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering 111: 289–293.
E. Verzelloni, D. Tagliazucchi and A. Conte. (2007). Relationship between the antioxidant properties and the phenolic and flavonoid content in traditional balsamic vinegar. Food Chemistry, 105(2), 564–571.
K. Jirasak. (2015). Enhancement of bioactive compounds of roselle vinegar by co-culture fermentation. Chemistry14:61-71.
S.P.J. Senanayake. (2013). Green tea extract: Chemistry, antioxidant properties and food applications—A review. J. Funct. Foods 5, 1529–1541.
S.R. Georgetti, F.T. Vicentini, C.Y. Yokoyama, M.F. Borin, A.C. Spadaro and M.J. Fonseca. (2009). Enhanced in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activity and mobilization of free phenolic compounds of soybean flour fermented with different beta-glucosidase-producing fungi. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 106(2), 459–466.
S. Cai, O. Wang, W. Wu, S. Zhu, F. Zhou, B. Ji., et al. (2012). Comparative study of the effects of solid-state fermentation with fhree filamentous fungi on the total phenolics content (TPC), flavonoids, and antioxidant activities of subfractions from oats (Avena sativa L.). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 60(1), 507–513.
W. Hai-Yao, Y. Kai-MIN and C. Yuan. (2018). Roselle anthocyanin: Antioxidant properties and stability to heat and pH. Department of Food Science and Biotechnology. Molecules 23:135.
H.O. Ruth, M. Antonia, B.C. Ana. And G. Isidoro. (2017). Influence of fermentation process on anthocyanin composition of wine and vinegar elaborated from strewberry: Anthocyanins in strewberry wine and strewberry vinegar. Journal of Food Science 82.
D. Tagliazucchi, E. Verzelloni, D. Bertolini and A. Conte. (2010). In vitro bio-accessibility and antioxidant activity of grape polyphenols. Food Chemistry, 120(2), 599–606.
E.O. Nwafor and O.O. Akpomie. (2014). Effect of fermentation time on quality attributes of zovo drink prepared from Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn. International Journal of Food Nutritional Safety 5(1):16-23.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.