Effect of Feeding Rate on Survival, Zootechnical Performance of Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) Brazil Strain Larvae Fed on 17-α-methyltestosterone Treated Feed


  •   Issa Nahoua Ouattara

  •   Claver Zea Bi Ue

  •   Siaka Berte

  •   Bakagnan Kamagate


This study was conducted to evaluate the feeding levels on survival, growth performance and feed utilization in the Brazil strain of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. Four (4) batches of larvae with mean initial weight 0.012 ± 0.005 g and mean initial total length 9 ± 0.003 mm were formed in triplicate, three per feeding rate. The rationing rates according to fry biomass applied in this trial were: batch 1: 50, 40, 30 and 25%, batch 2: 40, 30, 25 and 20%, batch 3: 30, 25, 20 and 18% and batch 4: 25, 20, 18 and 15% of biomass. The different feeding rates were tested during the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th week of larval rearing respectively. The fish were all fed a commercial feed (48% protein) distributed manually at a frequency of 5 meals per day. After 28 days of rearing, the results show that apart from the survival rate, the other parameters such as final average weight, daily growth and food consumption index were affected by the different rationing rates tested. The larvae of batch 2 rationed at 40, 30, 25 and 20 % of their biomass during the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th week of rearing respectively recorded significantly higher growth parameters (MWF: 1.092±0.027 g and DG: 0.038±0.000 g) and a more interesting food converion ratio (0.88 ) than the other batches of fry. From this study, it is concluded that an optimal feeding rate of 40, 30, 25 and 20% of the larval biomass during the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th week of rearing, respectively, should be applied in order to avoid either wastage or underfeeding of the subjects during hormone treatment with 17 α-methyltestosterone.

Keywords: feeding rate, hormone treatment, Nile tilapia, strain


N. Wing-keong, Potencial of palm oil utilization in aquaculture feeds. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 11, n. 7, pp. 473-476, 2002.

R. Devlin, and Y. Nagahama, Sex determination and sex differentiation in fish: an overview of genetic, physiological, and environmental influences. Aquaculture, vol. 208, n. 3-4, pp. 191-364, 2002.

R. A. Bombardelli, C. Hayashi, F. Meurer, and D. C. Fornari, Masculinização de larvas de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) por banhos de imersão e o andrógeno dissolvido em solução de dimetilsulfóxido (DMSO). Acta Scientiarum Animal Science, vol. 26, n. 2, pp. 209-215, 2004.

C. Rougeot, C. Prignon, C. V. Kengne, and C. Melard, Effect of high temperature during embryogenesis on the sex differentiation process in the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. Aquaculture, vol. 276, n. 1-4, pp. 205-208, 2008.

R. A. Bombardelli, and Hayashi C, Masculinization of larvae of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) by immersion baths with alpha-methyltestosterone. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia, vol. 34, n. 2, pp. 365-372, 2005.

A. F. M. El-Sayed, Tilapia culture, CABI Publishing Wallingford Oxfordshire, UK, pp. 1, 2006.

E. T. D. Mensah, F. K. Attipoe, and M. A. Johnson, Effect of different stocking densities on growth performance and profitability of Oreochromis niloticus fry reared in hapa-inpond system. International Journal of Fish. Aquaculture, vol. 5, n. 8, pp. 204-209, 2014.

F. Meurer, C. Hayashi, L. M. Barbero, L. D. Santos, R. A. Bombardelli, et L. M. S. Colpini, Farelo de soja na alimentação de tilápias-do-nilo durante o período de reversão sexual. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia, vol. 37, n. 5, pp. 791-794, 2008.

Y. S. Al‐Hafedh, and S. A. Ali, Effets de l'alimentation sur la survie, le cannibalisme, la croissance et la conversion alimentaire du poisson-chat africain, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell) dans des réservoirs en béton. Journal of Applied Ichthyology, vol. 20, n. 3, pp. 225-227, 2004.

C. R. Silva, L. C. Gomes, et F. R. Brandão, Effet du taux et de la fréquence d'alimentation sur la croissance, la production et les coûts d'alimentation du tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum) pendant la première phase de croissance en cage. Aquaculture, vol. 264, n. 1-4, pp. 135-139, 2007.

G. Wu, I. P. Saoud, C. Miller, and D. A. Davis, The effect of feeding regimen on mixedsize pond-grown channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus. Journal of Applied Aquaculture vol. 15, pp. 115–125, 2004.

J. C. Philippart, and C. Mélard, La production de tilapias en eau chaude industrielle en Belgique. Situation actuelle du projet, perspectives de développement en pisciculture solaire et transfert de la technologie. Cahiers d'Éthologie Appliquée, vol. 7, pp. 107-134, 1987.

C. Mélard, Les bases biologiques de l'elevage intensif du Tilapia du Nil, recherches sur la biologie de Oreochromis niloticus L. (Pisces Cichlidae) en élevage expérimental: reproduction, croissance, bioénergétique. Cahiers d'Etholgie Appliquee, vol. 10, pp. 224, 1986.

Y. Bamba, A. Ouattara, et G. Gourène, Production d’alevins de Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L., 1758) nourris avec des sous-produits agricoles, sans adjonction de farine de poisson. Agronomie Africaine, vol. 19, n. 2, pp. 211-221, 2007.

C. Z. Bi Ué, I. N. Ouattara, et S. Berté, Effets de la fréquence de nourrissage sur les paramètres zootechniques et le taux de masculinisation des larves de la souche «Brésil» du tilapia du nil Oreochromis niloticus (Linnee, 1758) pendant et après le traitement... Agronomie Africaine, vol. 31, n. 3, pp. 259-271, 2019.

T. P. Barry, A. Marwah, and P. Marwah, Stability of 17α-methyltestosterone in fish feed. Aquaculture, vol. 271, n. 1-4, pp. 523-529, 2007.

K. Tigoli, M. Cisse, M. Kone, M. Ouattara, A. Ouattara, et G. Gourène, Comparaison des performances de croissance de la souche « Bouaké » de Oreochromis niloticus traités au 17–α-methyltestosterone et leurs rentabilités, dans trois structures d’élevage. International Journal of Innovation and Applied Studies, vol. 20, pp. 493-499, 2017.

J. Lazard, La pisciculture des tilapias. Cahiers Agricultures, vol. 18, n. 2-3, pp. 82-174, 2009.

M. S. Azaza, A. Assad, W. Maghrbi, and M. El-Cafsi, 2013. The effects of rearing density on growth, size heterogeneity and inter-individual variation of feed intake in monosex male Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus L. Animal; vol. 7, n. 11, pp.1865-1874.

D. J. Macintosh, and S. S. De Silva, The influence of stocking density and food ration on fry survival and growth in Oreochromis mossambicus and reared in a closed circulated system. Aquaculture, vol. 41, pp. 345-358, 1984.

J. S. Diana, C. K. Lin, and K. Jaiyen, Supplemental feeding of tilapia in fertilized ponds. Journal of the world aquaculture society, vol. 25, n. 4, pp. 497-506, 1994.

A. M. F. El-Sayed, Effects of Stocking Density and Feeding Levels on Growth and Feed Efficiency of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) Fry. Aquaculture Research, vol. 32, pp. 621-625, 2002.

C. B. Santiogo, M. B. Aldada, and O. S. Reyes, Influence of feeding rate and diet form on growth and survival of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fry. Aquaculture, vol. 64, pp. 277-282, 1987.

H. Hogendoorn, J. A. J. Jansen, W. J. Koops, M. A. M. Machiels, P. H. Van Ewijk and J. P. Van Hees, Growth and production of the African catfish, Clarias lazera (C. & V.): II. Effects of body weight, temperature and feeding level in intensive tank culture. Aquaculture, vol. 34, n. 3-4, pp. 265-285, 1983.

Z. J. Otémé, and S. Gilles, Elevage larvaire du silure africain Heterobranchus longifilis : évaluation quantitative des besoins en proies vivantes des larves. Aquatic Living Resources, vol. 8, pp. 351-354, 1995.

M. Jobling, Physiological and social constraints on growth of fish with special reference to Arctic charr, Salvelinus alpinus L. Aquaculture, vol. 44, n. 2, pp. 83-90, 1985.

G. Delincé, The ecology of fish pond ecosystem with special reference to Africa. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, the Netherlands, 230 p, 1992.

C. Y. Cho, Feeding systems for rainbow trout and other salmonids with reference to current estimate of energy and protein requirement, Aquaculture, 100 : 107-123, 1992.


How to Cite
Ouattara, I. N., Zea Bi Ue, C., Berte, S., & Kamagate, B. (2021). Effect of Feeding Rate on Survival, Zootechnical Performance of Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) Brazil Strain Larvae Fed on 17-α-methyltestosterone Treated Feed. European Journal of Biology and Biotechnology, 2(5), 48-52. https://doi.org/10.24018/ejbio.2021.2.5.222