##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.main##

Sweet pepper is one of the most important nutritious vegetable and its demand is increasing day by day in Bangladesh indicating need to characterize and assess morphological variability for varietal improvement programme. Twenty-one sweet pepper genotypes from native and alien sources were characterized for twenty-six morphological traits using vegetative and reproductive appearances at Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University, Gazipur, Bangladesh from October 2018 to March 2019. Marked variation was exhibited among twenty-six qualitative traits (26) studied. Twenty-two (22) characters showed undeniable variation among the genotypes. The presence of higher percentage (61.90%) of light purple color at node were observed indicated high amount of anthocyanin content. Leaf shape is used as genotypes identifier at vegetative stage and herein three types of leaves were found with dark green color (76.19%) that is highly correlates with yield. In case of flower, same level of stigma exertion (61.90%) with 100% white color corolla indicates higher number of fruit sett were exhibited. Entire genotypes exerted one or more exclusive characters especially fruit shape and color in Bangladesh perspective which could be used as an important breeding tools. Fruit color was observed in various categories at intermediate and mature stage as for instance yellow, green, purple, orange, red etc. in addition higher percentage of blocky fruit shape (38.09%) were observed and these are the consumer fascinating attributes of sweet pepper. However, selection of genotypes with desirable morphological trait can be used for their exploitation of future breeding programme.

References

  1. REFERENCES
     Google Scholar
  2. R. Negi, S. Thakur, & P. Sharma, “Advances in the breeding of bell pepper-a review”, Intl J Curr Microbiol App Sci, 7(4), pp. 2272-2281, 2018.
     Google Scholar
  3. W. H. Greenleaf, “Pepper Breeding. In: Bassett, M. J. (ed) Breeding Vegetable Crops”, Avi Publishing, Westport, Connecticut, pp. 67-134, 1986.
     Google Scholar
  4. M. C. Joshi, and D. P. Singh, “Chemical Composition in Bell Pepper”, Indina Hort. 20, pp. 19-21, 1975.
     Google Scholar
  5. C. Chávez-Mendoza, E. Sanchez, E. Muñoz-Marquez, J. P. Sida-Arreola, and M. A. Flores-Cordova, “Bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity in different grafted varieties of bell pepper”, Antioxidants, 4(2), pp. 427-446, 2015.
     Google Scholar
  6. J. Ferdousi, Z. A. Riyadh, M. I. Hossain, S. R. Saha, & M. Zakaria, “Mushroom Production Benefits, Status, Challenges and Opportunities in Bangladesh: A Review”, Annual Research & Review in Biology, 34(6), pp. 1-1, 2020.
     Google Scholar
  7. ICDDRB (International Centre for Diarrheal Disease Research in Bangladesh), “A brief guide to malnutrition and its impact globally and in Bangladesh”, 2019. (Accessed on 12 December 2019) Available:https://www.icddrb.org/newsand-events/press-corner/mediaresources/malnutrition.
     Google Scholar
  8. BBS (Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics), “Yearbook of Agricultural Statistics: Ministry of Planning, Government of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh”, Dhaka, Bangladesh, pp. 139, 2020.
     Google Scholar
  9. Akter, M. R. Ali, T. Hasan, G. M. A. Halim, and H. Mehraj, “Effect of Planting Time and Seedling Raising Methods on Growth and Yield of Capsicum”, EC Nutrition 7.4, pp. 179-184, 2017.
     Google Scholar
  10. BARI (Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute), “Handbook on Agro-Technology, 8th edition”, Gazipur-1706, p. 549, 2019.
     Google Scholar
  11. N. U. Mahmud, R. Chakma, N. U. Ahmed, M. A. U. Zaman, and A. Hossain, “Effect of sowing date on quality seed production of sweet pepper in Bangladesh”, Progressive Agriculture, 28(3), pp. 216-221, 2017.
     Google Scholar
  12. M. B. Taylor, and V. S. Tuia, “The Importance of Germplasm Development and Exchange in Meeting the Challenges of the 21st Century in the Pacific Region”, In VI International Symposium on In Vitro Culture and Horticultural Breeding 829, pp. 231-239, 2008.
     Google Scholar
  13. D. Gogoi, and B. P. Gautam, “Evaluation of chilli (Capsicum spp.) germplasm for fruit yield and component characters” J. Appl. Hort, 4(1), pp. 41-442002.
     Google Scholar
  14. M. Sreenivas, A. B. Sharangi, S. Banerjee, T. Bhattacharya, P. K. Maurya, and A. Chattopadhyay, “Characterization and evaluation of indigenous and exotic genotypes for identification of spice chilli lines”, IJCS, 7(2), pp. 1830-1837, 2019.
     Google Scholar
  15. U. Joshi, D. K. Rana, V. Singh, and R. Bhatt, “Morphological characterization of chilli (Capsicum annum L.) genotypes”, J Emerg Tech Inn Res, 7, pp. 710, 2020.
     Google Scholar
  16. M. E. Osawaru, M. C. Ogwu, and J. Omologbe, “Characterization of three Okra [Ablemoschus (L.)] accessions using morphology and SDS-PAGE for the basis of conservation”, Egyptian Academic Journal of Biological Science, 5(1), pp. 55-65, 2014.
     Google Scholar
  17. B. P. Luitel, N. Y. H. C. Ro, Ko, J. S. Sung, J. H. Rhee, and O. S. Hur, “Phenotypic Variation in a Germplasm Collection of Pepper (Capsicum chinense Jacq.) from Korea”, Journal of Crop Science and Biotechnology, 21(5), pp. 499-506, 2018.
     Google Scholar
  18. J. C. Smith, and O. S. Smith, “The description and assessment of distances between inbred lines of maize, II: The utility of morphological biochemical, and genetic descriptors and a scheme for the testing of distinctiveness between inbred lines”, Maydica, 34(2), pp. 151-161, 1989.
     Google Scholar
  19. M. M. R. Salim, M. H. Rashid, M. M. Hossain, and M. Zakaria, “Morphological characterization of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) genotypes”, Journal of the Saudi Society of Agricultural Sciences, 19(3), pp. 233-240, 2020.
     Google Scholar
  20. S. G. Agong, S. Schittenhelm, and W. Friedt, “Genotypic variation of Kenyan tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) germplasm”, Journal of food technology in Africa, 6(1), pp. 13-17, 2001.
     Google Scholar
  21. P. R. Dharmatti, B. B. Madalgeri, I. M. Mannikeri, R. V. Patil, & G. Patil, “Genetic divergence studies in summer tomatoes”, Karnataka Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 14(2), pp. 407-411, 2001.
     Google Scholar
  22. V. A. Parthasarathy, and C. Aswath, “Genetic diversity among tomato genotypes”, Indian Journal of Horticulture, 59(2), pp. 162-166, 2002.
     Google Scholar
  23. Anonymous, “Agro-cimatarologicaldata. Agromet Division. Bangladesh Meteorological Department, Joydebpur, Gazipur”, pp. 35-65, 1995.
     Google Scholar
  24. FAO (Food and Agricultural Organization), Production Year Book, Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy”, 1988.
     Google Scholar
  25. J. Haider, T. Maruomoto and A. K. Azad, “Estimation of microbial biomass, carbon and nitrogen in Bangladesh Soils”, Sci. Plant Nutr. 37(4), pp. 591-599, 1991.
     Google Scholar
  26. T.G. Berke, L.L. Black, S.K. Green, R.A. Morris, N.S. Tlekar, and J.F. Wang, “Suggested Cultural Practices for Field Cultivation of Sweet Pepper”, Int. Cooperation’s Guide. AVRDC, Pub. No. 99-497, AVRDC, Shanhua, Taiwan, 741, ROC, pp. 197, 1999.
     Google Scholar
  27. IPGRI, AVRDC and CATIE, “Descriptors for Capsicum (Capsicum spp.) IPGRI, Rome, Italy”, 1995.
     Google Scholar
  28. S. Farwah, K. Hussain, K. P. Wani, Z. A. Dar, Z. A. Bhat, S. Rizvi, and S. Maqbool, “Distinctiveness, uniformity and stability characterization of Chilli (Capsicum annuum L.) genotypes under temperate conditions of Kashmir”, SKUAST Journal of Research, 21(2), pp. 152-165, 2019.
     Google Scholar
  29. J. K. Moon, and T. Shibamoto, “Antioxidant assays for plant and food components”, Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 57(5), pp. 1655-1666, 2009.
     Google Scholar
  30. S. Sonia, and S. Ruchi, “Morphological characterization of bell pepper (Capsicum annuum var. grossum) genotypes and their application for distinctness, uniformity and stability testing”, Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 81(3), pp. 240-246, 2011.
     Google Scholar
  31. M. K. Bozokalfa,and D. Eşiyok, “Evaluation of morphological and agronomical characterization of Turkish pepper accessions”, International journal of vegetable science, 17(2), pp. 115-135, 2011.
     Google Scholar
  32. R. Pachiyappan, and K. Saravannan, “Studies on genetic variability and correlation for fruit yield and fruit quantity characters of okra”, Asian Journal of Horticulture, 11(1), pp. 101-104, 2016.
     Google Scholar
  33. L. P. Peña-Yam, L. S. Muñoz-Ramírez, S. A. Avilés-Viñas, A. Canto-Flick, A. Guzmán-Antonio, and N. Santana-Buzzy, “Floral biology studies in habanero pepper (Capsicum chinense jacq.) to implement in a cross-breeding program”, Agriculture, 9(12), pp. 249, 2019.
     Google Scholar
  34. S. Rahman, M. A. Hossain, and R. Afroz, “Morphological characterization of chilli germplasm in Bangladesh”, Bangladesh Journal of Agricultural Research, 42(2), pp. 207-219, 2017.
     Google Scholar
  35. J. Rajesh, V. M. Prasad, and A. Kerketta, “Evaluation of Different Okra [Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench] Hybrids for Yield and Yield Attributes under Allahabad”, Agro-climatic Condition. Int. J. Pure App. Biosci, 6(5), pp. 1343-1346, 2018.
     Google Scholar
  36. J. O. Uzo, “Hybrid vigour and gene action of two qualitative traits of flavour peppers in Nigeria”, Scientia horticulturae, 22(4), pp. 321-326, 1984.
     Google Scholar
  37. S. Sood, and N. Kumar, “Morphological studies of bell pepper germplasm”, International journal of vegetable science, 17(2), pp. 144-156, 2011.
     Google Scholar
  38. V. Sharma, S. Sood, V. K. Sood, and Y. Singh, “Morphological characterization of Bell Pepper (Capsicum annuum L. var. grossum Sendt.) genotypes”, Himachal Journal of Agricultural Research, 43(1), pp. 33-39, 2017.
     Google Scholar
  39. V. K. Sharma, A. Srivastava, and M. Mangal, “Recent Trends in Sweet Pepper Breeding”, In Accelerated Plant Breeding, Vol. 2, pp. 417-444, Springer, Cham, 2020.
     Google Scholar